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  The importance of judo trainers

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مُساهمةموضوع: The importance of judo trainers   الأربعاء فبراير 15, 2012 7:49 pm

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The importance of judo trainers’ professional activities
Stanislaw Sterkowicz1ABCDEF, Jose Manuel Garcià Garcià2B, Ferran Suay i Lerma3B
1 Department of the Theory and Methodology of Combat Sports, Cracow Academy of Physical Education, Poland
2 University Castilla La Mancha, Spain
3 University of Valencia, Spain
This paper was partly presented by first author during International Scientific Congress on Modern Olympic Sport
and Sport for All in Warsaw (2002)
Summary
Study aim: A personnel training is an essential component in the prevention of breakdowns in the
training system for the competitive sports. The results of tests carried out on trainers have
led to the premise that the focus of the synthesis of the training syllabus taught in the
specialist instruction for trainers at sport institution should be on the trainer’s professional
activities. The aim of this study was to establish the importance of the coaches professional
activities for success in judo.
Material/methods: We analyzed opinion of 30 trainers participated in international judo course (Malaga,
10-14, July 2001). Their average age was 34.6 years and their experience as a judo coach
was 12.2 years. They were asked for their opinions concerning factors, which are the key to
success (in percentages), and in addition about 20 types of trainers’ professional activities.
Results: A technical schooling mostly contributed to sports result. The next factors were psychological
and tactical preparation. Planning the training process and control over competitor’s
technical schooling were the most important among 20 professional activities.
Conclusions: In conclusion, the information collected and processed should be updated and made
accessible to future generations of judoists, thus assisting in a rational educational process
for trainers in this sport.
Key words: judo trainer • education • syllabus
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The importance of judo trainers   الأربعاء فبراير 15, 2012 7:52 pm

الجزء الثاني:
Word count: 2589
Tables: 1
Figures: 2
References: 8
Received: 2007.11.16
Accepted: 2007.11.19
Published: 2007.11.23
Author’s address: José Manuel Garcيa Garcيa, University Castilla La Mancha, Spain, e-mail:
57
Archives of Budo, 2007; Vol. 3: 57-61
Authors’ contributions:
A Study design
B Data collection
C Statistical analysis
D Data interpretation
E Literature search
F Manuscript preparation
G Funds collection
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BACKGROUND
A personnel training is an essential component in the
prevention of breakdowns in the training system for
the competitive sports [2, 7, 8]. The results of tests
carried out on trainers have led to the premise that
the focus of the synthesis of the training syllabus
taught in the specialist instruction for trainers at
sport institution should be on the trainer’s professional
activities [3, 5].
The authors, who are experienced academic lecturers
and coaches, are believe that if specialist syllabi are to
be updated, it will be necessary to fi nd out what the
training personnel think is the order of importance
in the trainer’s professional duties.
The aim of this project was to establish the importance
of the coaches professional activities for success
in judo.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The importance of judo trainers   الأربعاء فبراير 15, 2012 7:53 pm

الجزء الثالث:
MATERIAL & METHODS
Thirty trainers participated in international judo
course at ‘Istituto Andaluz del Deporte’ in Malaga
(10-14, July 2001) were asked for their opinions concerning
the importance of different trainers professional
activities. Their average age was 34.6 years and
their experience as a judo coach was 12.2 years. There
were 26 men 4 women in the group. The coaches
worked in the judo clubs with both female and male
judo athletes. Two male coaches work only with the
women judo athletes.
The method used for data collection was an own
questionnaire (projected by fi rst author) concerning
factors, which are the key to success (in percentages),
and in addition 20 types of trainers’ professional activities
defi ned by G.S. Tumanian [7]. The respondents
used the four-point scale of importance for evaluation
of professional activities, i.e.: 4 – very important,
3 – important, 2 – less important, 1 – unimportant.
The averages, standard deviation and median were
computed for each scale. Each professional activity
was ranked according to their mean value. We verifi
ed results in cluster analysis. The method referred
to in the STATGRAPHICS 5.1 program as Cluster
Analysis, Furthest Neighbor, and City Block Distance
was used.
RESULTS
Factors responsible to bear for success in judo
First, the question of to what degree the trainers supposed
distinct factors responsible to bear for success
in judo. Figure 1 shows factors, which contribute, to
high results in the sport of judo.
In the opinion of coaches, a technical schooling
mostly contributed to sports result (23.4%). The next
factors were psychological and tactical preparation
(loading 20.1 and 18.0% adequately). Body build
and motor fi tness preparation contributed 14.8 and
14.2%, adequately.
The theoretical preparation and other factors leading
to success rather in small degree.
Trainer’s opinion about importance of their
professional activities
As exhibited in Table 1, the highest rank in opinion of
trainers have both planning the training process and
control over competitor’s technical schooling (rank
1.5, ex aequo), while organization and refereeing of
competitions ranks as one of the latter place (ranked
as 20) of the whole professional activities set.
The median values in Table 1 showed for distinct professional
activities differed from 2 to 4. Trainers think
that seven professional activities are very important
for success of their competitors (Median = 4): planning
the training process, control over competitor’s
technical schooling, control over competitor’s tactical
schooling, control over the training process and the
state of a competitor’s body, working on competitor’s
motivation sphere, organizing for competitor’s rest
and recovery process, and organization of trainer’s
pedagogical work.
According to opinion of our respondents, 9 activities
are important (Median value is equal 3): taking
care of a student’s during tournaments, working out
a competitor’s physical preparedness, working on
a competitor’s theoretical preparation, improving
a competitor’s personal manners, monitoring a competitor’s
progress at school qualifi cations of assistant
Figure 1. Piechart for factors loading to success in opinion of 30 judo
trainers.
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coaches and referees giving fi rst aid organizing judo
camps, solving-outs related organization problems.
From the Table 1, it is also evident, that the four
trainers’ professional activities are evaluated as less
important: report writing and paperwork, conducting
research work for scientifi c and methodological
studies, recruitment and selection to a judo club, and
organization and refereeing of competitions.
Figure 2 illustrates the results of the cluster analysis
of the trainers’ opinions, in which trainer’s activities
were classifi ed together in-groups sharing a similar
feature. The individual activities were also ranked.
There were four distinct groups of naturally interrelated
trainer’s professional activities.
The fi rst group (situated in a center of the graph)
consisted of a combination of the fi ve most important
activities, which the respondents thought were
planning the training process (ranked 1.5 in table 1),
and control over a competitor’s technical schooling
(No. 1.5), and tactical skills (No. 3.5), and supervising
the training process and condition of the competitor’s
body (No. 3.5), and training a competitor’s motivational
(volitional) powers (ranked No. 5). The closer
distance is connecting control over the technical and
tactical schooling (Q3 and Q4).
The second group on the left site of the graph started
from very important professional activities, i.e. organizing
on a competitor’s rest and recovery process
(rank No. 7), and organization of trainer’s pedagogical
Table 1. Importance of judo trainers’ activities according to the answers to questions Q1...Q20.
Type of trainers’ activities (Q1...20) x – SD Median Rank*
11. Planning the training process 3,8 0,38 4 1,5
3. Control over your competitor’s technical schooling 3,8 0,51 4 1,5
4. Control over your competitor’s tactical schooling 3,7 0,48 4 3,5
9. Control over the training process and the state of your competitor’s body 3,7 0,47 4 3,5
15. Working on your competitor’s motivation sphere 3,6 0,57 4 5
1. Organizing your competitor’s rest and recovery process 3,5 0,57 4 7
20. Organization of your pedagogical work 3,5 0,57 4 7
16. Taking care of your student’s during tournaments 3,5 0,51 3 7
7. Working out your competitor’s physical preparedness 3,4 0,62 3 9
18. Work on your competitor’s theoretical preparation 3,3 0,73 3 10
2. Improving your competitor’s personal manners 3,2 0,71 3 11
17. Monitoring yours competitor’s progress at school 3,0 0,72 3 12
19. Qualifi cations of assistant coaches and referees 2,8 0,75 3 13
5. Giving fi rst-aid 2,7 0,88 3 14,5
8. Organizing judo camps 2,7 0,87 3 14,5
10. Solving work-outs related organization problems 2,6 0,85 3 16,5
6. Report writing and paperwork 2,6 0,72 2,5 16,5
14. Conducting research work for scientifi c and methodological studies 2,5 0,82 2 18,5
13. Recruitment and selection to your judo club 2,5 0,93 2 18,5
12. Organization and refereeing of competitions 2,4 0,61 2 20
* Ranks were determined on the basis of the mean value.
Figure 2. Dendrogram of judo trainers professional activities.
59
The importance of judo trainers’ professional activities
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work (No. 7). This two-element subgroup makes a
logical connection with taking care of a student’s
during tournaments (No. 7), work on a competitor’s
theoretical preparation (No. 10), and improving
a competitor’s personal manners (No. 11), and monitoring
a competitor’s progress at school (No.12).
The third group comprised another fi ve activities:
monitoring a competitor progress at school
(ranked No. 12), qualifi cations of assistant coaches
and referees (ranked No.13), the organization of
specialist training camps (ranked No. 14.5), solving
work-outs related organizational problems (No. 16.6),
and organization and refereeing of competitions
(No. 20). We can fi nd big gap between ranks of activities
connected in this group, which is varied from
12 to 20. In the second cluster the biggest distance
characterize monitoring a competitor’s progress at
school (ranked No. 12) and organization and refereeing
of competitions (ranked No. 20). This subgroup
is joining two next activities, that are working out a
competitor’s physical preparedness (No. 9) and giving
fi rst aid (ranked 14.5).
The fourth group included three activities, which
the respondents thought less important: conducting
research for academic projects and investigations in
methods of training (No. 16.5), and the collection
of documentation and drawing up of reports (No.
18.5), and the recruitment and selection to judo club
(ranked No. 18.5).


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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The importance of judo trainers   الأربعاء فبراير 15, 2012 7:54 pm

الجزء الرابع:
DISCUSSION
Undoubtedly, those professionally involved with the
training of trainers see the following as important
aspects of the profession: coaching in the sense of
effi cient communication of knowledge and skills;
training, that is enhancement of students’ fi tness;
the motivational function which generates favourable
and resolute attitudes; the disciplining function;
the promotion function which monitors social
acceptance; the advisory and information function;
the assisting and supportive function; the scientifi c
function, characterized by analysis, assessment, and
synthesis; and the student function, demonstrated in
their willingness to listen and learn [2].
In our research generally, we can conclude that the
statistics presented in table 1 are confi rmed by the
cluster analysis. Those interested in the subject will
fi nd it particularly signifi cant that control over a
competitor’s technical-tactical schooling, and control
over the training process, and the state of a
competitor’s body, and planning the training process,
and working on a competitor’s motivational sphere
was ranked in the group of trainer’s activities which
trainers thought decisive for the achievement of fi rstrate
sporting results.
In opinion of coaches both the planning the training
process and the organization of a competitor’s rest
and recovery process are very important activities
related to their job. At the same time the fact that
there was no correlation between the importance
attributed to the supervision of the training process
and condition of the competitor’s body, and the
low position given to the conducting of research for
academic projects and investigations in methods of
training may be considered somewhat paradoxical.
So we proposed coaches participated at International
Judo Course in Malaga some scientifi c methods of
training control [1, 4, 6].
This observation leads to the problem of co-operation
between the theoreticians and the practitioners,
in view of a host of still current questions. How are
trainers to perform the supervision and solve the
practical problems that crop up if they have no knowledge
of the methodology of the research carried out
in the sport sciences? What is the value for trainers
working in individual clubs of data collected by the
theoreticians relating to the top competitors? In what
way are the practitioners to implement the research
results obtained by the theoreticians if these results
are derived from not very accurate descriptions of the
competitor population? What should their attitude
be to cohort tests and to studies of random occurrence?
What is the value of research, which ignores
the relationship between stimulus and reaction? How
should training be planned for a competitor centrally
grouped in the club if not much is known about the
workloads he has performed outside the team?
A variety of interactions develop between the trainer
and the competitors in the course of a long process of
training and competitions [6]. It is only the trainer’s
mastery of his professional activities that will trigger
the feedback mechanisms necessary to integrate
his individual activities into the general groups that
are decisive in overall accomplishment effected in a
complex performance. For students at sport institutes
specializing in training, practical instruction under the
guidance of outstanding club trainers is an essential.
It is under the good practitioner’s eye that the trainee
generally reaches the conclusion that there can be no
practical work of any value without a solid theoretical
grounding; and that any of the trainer’s particular
activities or duties - e.g. promotion carried out during
a recruitment campaign, or the administration of fi rst
aid immediately after an accident, or the vetting of a
new test for special motor effi ciency to enhance the
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1. Garcia Garcia J.M. (2001) Entrenamiento de la fuerza especifi ca para
judo. Anadalucia Instituto Andaluz del Deporte, Apuntes 784, Malaga
10 al. 14 de julio del 2001 (a paper presented).
2. Gleeson, G. (1984) The Coach in Action. The National Coaching
Foundation, Leeds: White Line Press.
3. Sterkowicz, S., Januszewski J. (1988) Czynności zawodowe trenerَw
a program ich kształcenia w karate i łucznictwie [Trainers’ Professional
Activities and Syllabi for Their Education in Karate and Archery],
Materials from the International Conference entitled “The Training of
Physical Culture Personnel”. Krakَw: Zeszyty Naukowe AWF w Krakowie,
58, 255-259.
4. Sterkowicz S., Franchini E. (2001) Elite and Non-elite Judo Players
Performances in Special Judo Fitness Test. Anadalucia Instituto
Andaluz del Deporte, Apuntes 784, Malaga 10 al. 14 de julio del 2001
(a paper presented).
5. Sterkowicz S., Garcia Garcia J.M., Suay i Lerma F. (2002) Current
Problems of Judo Coach Education. Wychowanie Fizyczne i Sport/
Physical Education and Sport, Vol. 46, Suppl. 1, 612-613.
6. Suay i Lerma F. [2001] Registro dle la conducta de entrenadores;
evaluacion de la conducta del entrenador. IV Jornadas Internacionales
de judo. Anadalucia Instituto Andaluz del Deporte, Apuntes 784,
Malaga 10 al. 14 de julio del 2001 (a paper presented).
7. Tumanian, G.S. (1985) O novom kompleksie uchebnykh distsiplin
dla kafeidr FK vypuskayushchikh trenenov-prepodavateley po vidu
sporta. Teoriya i Praktika Fizicheskoy Kultury, 12.
8. Ważny, Z. (1981) Wspَłczesny system szkolenia w sporcie wyczynowym
[The Contemporary Training System in Competitive Sport]. Warszawa:
Sport i Turystyka.
REFERENCES:
reliability and prognostic value of this new instrument
in training supervision etc. - may prove of crucial
relevance given particular circumstances.
Effective work in this profession cannot be schematic,
when many different roles have to be reconciled at the
same time. For instance, a trainer has to adequately
motivate the competitors in order to shape their attitudes,
and at the same time, he must act as a teacher,
scientifi c observer, manager etc. [2]. Although this
ranking arrangement of the judo trainer’s tasks is
chiefl y of a theoretical value, in the practice of the
instruction given to students in their specialization
courses it has enabled me to arrive at a synthesis of
certain academic conclusions and some educational
experimentation in our sports discipline. In view of
this, the next aim should be to compile an effective
syllabus for the education of judo trainers by carrying
out an analysis of the current situation.
CONCLUSIONS
In conclusion, the information collected and processed
will be updated and made accessible to future
generations of judoists, thus assisting in a rational
educational process for trainers in this sport.
61
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